English Australia Journal : English Australia Journal 27.1
EA Journal Volume 27 No 1 4 Vocabulary is very important if you not got numerous vocabulary when writing. I just think ‘how to’ if I want to explain that word. What is the exactly word in English? How to say that? That is the important thing. Second thing is have I got the right word or not? Just like numerous – do I need to put of after the numerous? Examining vocabulary in writing is important from a teaching and learning perspective. We know from Nation (2001) that knowledge for the production of vocabulary in writing involves aspects of form, meaning, and use, as shown in Table 1 below. Coxhead (2007) provides more information on aspects of knowledge needed for using vocabulary in writing, including the degree of knowledge of a word, the topic, and the first language of the writers. Form How is the word written and spelled? Meaning Form and meaning What word form can be used to express this meaning? Concepts and referents What items can this concept refer to? Associations What other words can we use instead of this one? Use Grammatical function In what patterns must we use this word? Collocations What words or types of words must we use with this one? Constraints of use (register, frequency...) Where, when and how often can we use this word? Table 1: Nation’s table of knowledge required for production of a word in writing (adapted from Nation, 2001, p. 27) Folse (2006) compares three writing activities and their effects on vocabulary retention, finding that multiple gap fills are more likely to lead to better retention than writing original sentences. A study by Lee and Muncie (2006) included a high level of exposure to vocabulary items to be used in writing, repetition, repeated opportunities for writing, feedback, and time focused on target lexical items. These researchers argue: Explicit target vocabulary instruction appears to be a significant aspect of scaffolding learners’ writing tasks, allowing learners to see how meaning can be codified effectively with appropriate vocabulary choice (Lee & Muncie, 2006, p. 296). These studies looked at the retention of vocabulary after instruction, whereas this article looks at the positive and negative effects for the writers themselves of being ‘pushed’ to produce target words in writing. ‘Pushed’ production ‘may force the learner to move from semantic processing to syntactic processing’ (Swain, 1985, p. 249).
English Australia Journal 27.2