English Australia Journal : English Australia Journal 32.1
Volume 32 No 1 5 English Australia Journal Figure 1. Summary of Dörnyei and Ottós’ (1998) model of motivation Dörnyei suggests 25 motivational strategies in this framework, divided into four categories (see Figure 2); for example, ’have students work in pairs‘ or ’give students constructive praise.’ The present study is mainly concerned with testing this framework in an Australian tertiary Foundation Studies Program for ESL students at an Australian college. This Foundation Studies Program incorporates key subjects such as math and science, as well as English language lessons, to prepare international ESL students for entry into Australian universities or college programs. Figure 2 summarises Dörnyei’s (2001) framework for motivation categories. 1. Creating the basic motivational conditions, which involve setting the scene for the effec- tive use of motivational strategies. This could be done by providing a pleasant environment and cohesive student groups. 2. Generating initial motivation, corresponding roughly to the preactional stage of the motiva- tion model. This could be done by enhancing students’ expectations of success or with relevant teaching materials. 4. Encouraging positive self-evaluation, cor- responding to the postactional stage in the model. This could be done by providing moti- vational feedback or rewards. 3. Maintaining and protecting motivation, corresponding to the actional stage in the model. This could be done by making learn- ing enjoyable or setting specific, achievable student goals. Categories of motivational strategies (Dörnyei, 2001) Figure 2. Summary of Dörnyei’s 2001 framework of motivation categories (based on Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011; Papi & Abdollahzadeh, 2012) Dörnyei (2005) proposed a second model of motivation, the L2 motivational self system (ideal and ought-to L2 self), and emphasises the importance of learners’ visions of their future ideal selves and ought-to L2 selves, as well as their learning experience, in order for them to be motivated. The next section discusses previous research on teachers’ motivational strategies and informs this study’s aim. Preactional Stage - where motivation is initially generated. This can be referred to as 'choice motivation,' because it involves the selection of goals and tasks. Actional Stage - where generated motivation needs to be actively maintained and protected. This has been referred to as 'executive motivation.' Postactional Stage - this involves the learners' evaluation of how well they have done and determines the activities they will be motivated to pursue in the future. This can be called 'motivational retrospection.'
English Australia Journal 31.2
English Australia Journal Volume 32.02