English Australia Journal : English Australia Journal 32.1
Volume 32 No 1 4 English Australia Journal addresses the question ‘Are these motivational teaching strategies effective?’ An answer to this question is especially desirable when looking at observational research as opposed to research that relies on self-reporting (Guilloteaux & Dörnyei, 2008, pp. 56–7). moreover, Papi and Abdollahzadeh (2012) called for empirical research on this topic that can be expanded to a tertiary context of English as a second language (ESL), where students are often presumed to be more motivated and task-focused than those taking English as a foreign language (EFL) in middle and high schools. ushioda (2013b) also calls for research that provides ‘richly detailed analyses of motivation grounded in actual classroom events’ (p. 236). The current study aims to address such research gaps. Literature review Lack of motivation in the classroom can be seen as a chronic problem (for example, Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014; ushioda, 2013a). motivation is a complex and challenging issue for both researchers and teachers (madrid, 2002; Scheidecker & Freeman, 1999). motivation cannot be measured independent of other variables, because it exists largely as an internal force manifesting itself as a factor influencing individuals’ behaviour (madrid & Pérez-Cañado, 2001). According to Dörnyei (1998) and ushioda (2001), this difficulty in measuring motivation partly resulted in a lack of practical research on classroom motivation and motivational strategies up until the late 1990s. For teachers, the dynamic nature of motivation means that ‘motivating students yesterday, today, and tomorrow will never be a singular or simplistic process’ (Scheidecker & Freeman, 1999, p . 117). Theoretical framework Specific theories on motivation construction usually come from psychological and cultural perspectives, often combined. Dörnyei and ushioda (2011) group such theories into three main phases: social-psychological, cognitive-situated, and process-oriented/socio-dynamic. The most recent process-oriented/socio-dynamic phase was initiated by William and Burden’s (1997) and Dörnyei and ottó’s (1998) models of motivation that highlight temporal stages of motivation. Dörnyei and ottó’s (1998) process-oriented model has a preactional, actional, and postactional stage of motivation, which informed the framework of motivational strategies (Dörnyei, 2001) that the present study investigates. Elaborated upon by Dörnyei in 2000 and 2001, Figure 1 shows Dörnyei and ottó’s (1998) model.
English Australia Journal 31.2
English Australia Journal Volume 32.02