English Australia Journal : English Australia Journal 31.1
Volume 31 No 1 28 English Australia Journal legitimacy of a native-speaker model and started to see the value of English varieties used in outer circle (e.g ., Englishes spoken in Nigeria, Singapore or India) and expanding circle (e.g . , Englishes used in Japan, Russia or Vietnam) contexts (Kachru, 1985). This emerging perspective most likely affected some of the participants’ perceptions of the pedagogical goal of pronunciation instruction. 5 Hiro’s comment made towards the end of the semester, for example, lends support to this proposition in that he expressed concerns about teaching a native model of English pronunciation to Japanese students: But if we emphasise too much like native model maybe [the students] become unwilling to speak because [they think] ‘oh, very Japanese sound’ so it’s kind of risky to focus on the perfect model too much. They will hesitate to pronounce . . . (Focus Group 1, Interview 3) Table 3 Areas of Impact L2 learners prefer to listen to outer circle English varieties L2 learners prefer to listen to expanding circle English varieties Goal of pronunciation teaching is accent elimination Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Strongly agree/ agree 7.7% (1) 7.7% (1) 7.7% (1) 15.4% (2) Maybe 23.1% (3) 53.9% (7) 15.4% (2) 53.9% (7) 38.4% (5) Strongly disagree/ disagree 69.2% (9) 46.1% (6) 76.9% (10) 46.1% (6) 53.9% (7) 84.6% (11) Notes: Raw figures (number of participant responses) are in parentheses; Q1 = Questionnaire 1; Q2 = Questionnaire 2 It is worth noting that, as Table 4 shows, NS and NNS perceptions about outer and expanding circle English varieties changed. More specifically, although the NS category included one shift from agreeing with non-native Englishes to ‘maybe’ (see both NS Q1 columns), overall, NS and NNS beliefs slightly shifted from disagreeing to beginning to see some value (i.e ., ‘maybe’) in outer and expanding circle English varieties (see NS and NNS Q2 columns).
English Australia Journal 30.1
English Australia Journal 31.2